Spell Checking Oriented Word Lists (SCOWL) Version 2015.08.24 Mon Aug 24 16:30:46 2015 -0400 [2a9ff8b] by Kevin Atkinson (email@example.com) The SCOWL is a collection of word lists split up in various sizes, and other categories, intended to be suitable for use in spell checkers. However, I am sure it will have numerous other uses as well. The latest version can be found at http://wordlist.aspell.net/. The directory final/ contains the actual word lists broken up into various sizes and categories. The r/ directory contains Readmes from the various sources used to create this package. The misc/ contains a small list of taboo words, see the README file for more info. The speller/ directory contains scripts for creating spelling dictionaries for Aspell and Hunspell. The other directories contain the necessary information to recreate the word lists from the raw data. Unless you are interested in improving the words lists you should not need to worry about what's here. See the section on recreating the words lists for more information on what's there. Except for the special word lists the files follow the following naming convention: <spelling category>-<sub-category>.<size> Where the spelling category is one of english, american, british, british_z, canadian, variant_1, variant_2, variant_3, british_variant_1, british_variant_2, canadian_variant_1, canadian_variant_2, Sub-category is one of abbreviations, contractions, proper-names, upper, words And size is one of 10, 20, 35 (small), 40, 50 (medium), 55, 60, 70 (large), 80 (huge), 95 (insane) The special word lists follow are in the following format: special-<description>.<size> Where description is one of: roman-numerals, hacker The perl script "mk-list" can be used to create a word list of the desired size, its usage is: ./mk-list [-f] [-v#] <spelling categories> <size> where <spelling categories> is one of the above spelling categories (the english and special categories are automatically included as well as all sub-categories) and <size> is the desired size. The "-v" option can be used to also include the appropriate variants file up to level '#'. The normal output will be a sorted word list. If you rather see what files will be included, use the "-f" option. When manually combining the words lists the "english" spelling category should be used as well as one of "american", "british", "british_z" (british with ize spelling), or "canadian". Great care has been taken so that only one spelling for any particular word is included in the main list (with some minor exceptions). When two variants were considered equal I randomly picked one for inclusion in the main word list. Unfortunately this means that my choice in how to spell a word may not match your choice. If this is the case you can try including one of the "variant_1" spelling categories which includes most variants which are considered almost equal. The "variant_1" spelling category corresponds mostly to American variants, while the "british_variant_1" and "canadian_variant_1" are for British and Canadian variants, respectively. The "variant_2" spelling categories include variants which are also generally considered acceptable, and "variant_3" contains variants which are seldom used and may not even be considered correct. There is no "british_variant_3" or "canadian_variant_3" spelling category since the distinction would be almost meaningless. The "abbreviation" category includes abbreviations and acronyms which are not also normal words. The "contractions" category should be self explanatory. The "upper" category includes upper case words and proper names which are common enough to appear in a typical dictionary. The "proper-names" category includes all the additional uppercase words. Finally the "words" category contains all the normal English words. To give you an idea of what the words in the various sizes look like here is a sample of 25 random words found only in that size: 10: actual appreciating assembly case clear comparable continuation delay died display experiencing feeling introduces means merely midnight misleading prove respects stuff unable understanding warn watching whether 20: adjustments buggers defeating developer disappoints disclaimer forbade framework hash islands libel lips misrepresent museums prayer resolved sauce scum seldom sickened targets terrorist transaction waving wraps 35: assassinations champs consul deodorized discoursing fondness furl glades groom hasting infix jalopy multiplicity obediently oversimplification pantomimed promenaded provocations psychiatry roughing sanserif snipped spellbound tunnelings upturning 40: barbells beholders bestsellers breathlessly envision goalpost gridlocks halftimes hypodermics immortalize insularity jiggered jumpsuit phallic polygamist proscribed selfishly shushes smörgåsbords stinkers teargas tics tykes warmonger zaps 50: abuts aquaplanes aught aviary backstopped beekeeper daylights disgorges disinclined flange handcrafted ideograms insole knucklehead leaseholders leis nostrums pedometer pyromaniac royalist saline slavered unmissed valuations youngish 55: apparatchik bodysuit bungee defectiveness deselect druggie duffing freephone frontbenchers gestalts guesthouses harrumphing injudiciously insanitary orangeness pistes proximate pukka radicalized raptor slowcoach stakeholders tombolas tosser troglodyte 60: ephedrine extender floorwalkers groomers isometrically kaddishes knurling mealiness moue nonstrategic placekicker preadolescences professorially reemploying rephotograph rerecord ringings singletree sous sportiness springily telephotography trainable unadventurous unsymmetrical 70: abiogenetic adenitises agon appellative chincapin coonhounds crosslet dissipator dropline dualities indult megadose monometallic monovalent polymerases predella repercussive saprophagous sestet spandrel surveilled tapetum troche tufty uveitis 80: bethanked brusher ceilers cocultures conformationally endophagy fulgencies gigantomachies handballers handpresses helibus ngaios overcredulous palladianism predictabilities santir scarabaean schavs scrine skreegh sostenuti tamoxifens thunderation unmitering xanthomata 95: absinthiin amphigenetic ashir autocephalia babingtonites baltimore barenecked dargles dashel deprevation halapepe imputting kyphosus liniya locable luckly minitrains monadistic mullenize nonelectrized nonmalleableness printerlike subdiscoid trifly typothere And here is a count on the number of words in each spelling category (american + english spelling category): Size Words Names Running Total % 10 4,427 13 4,440 0.7 20 8,122 0 12,562 1.9 35 37,259 222 50,043 7.6 40 6,846 491 57,380 8.7 50 25,129 18,213 100,722 15.3 55 6,509 0 107,231 16.3 60 13,895 745 121,871 18.5 70 35,634 7,934 165,439 25.2 80 144,343 33,371 343,153 52.2 95 227,730 86,651 657,534 100.0 (The "Words" column does not include the name count.) Size 35 is the recommended small size, 50 the medium and 70 the large. For spell checking I recommend using 60. Sizes 70 and below contain words found in most dictionaries while the 80 size contains all the strange and unusual words people like to use in word games such as Scrabble (TM). While a lot of the words in the 80 size are not used very often, they are all generally considered valid words in the English language. The 95 contains just about every English word in existence and then some. Many of the words at the 95 level will probably not be considered valid English words by most people. I use the 60 size for the English dictionary for Aspell, and I don't recommend anyone use levels above 70 for spell checking. Levels above 70 contain rarely used words which can hide misspellings of similar more commonly used words. For example the word "ort" can hide a common typo of "or". No one should need to use a size larger than 80, the 95 size is labeled insane for a reason. Accents are present on certain words such as café in iso8859-1 format. CHANGES: From Version 2015.05.18 to 2015.08.24 (Aug 24, 2015) Various new words. From Version 2015.04.24 to 2015.05.18 (May 18, 2015) Added some new words found to have a high frequency in the COCA corpus. (http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/). Fix en spelling suggestions for 'alot' and 'exersize' in hunspell dictionary (upstreamed from the changes made in Firefox). From Version 2015.02.15 to 2015.04.24 (April 24, 2015) Added some new words. Convert hunspell dictionary to UTF-8 in order to handle smart quotes correctly. From Version 2015.01.28 to 2015.02.15 (February 15, 2015) Added a large number of neologisms (newly invented words) such as "selfie" and "smartwatch" thanks to Alan Beale. Various other new words. Clean up the special-hacker category by removing some words that didn't exist in the Google Book's Corpus (1980 - 2008) and originated from the "Unofficial Jargon File Word Lists". From Version 2014.11.17 to 2015.01.28 (January 28, 2015) Various new words, many from analyzing the Google Book's Corpus (1980 - 2008). See http://app.aspell.net/lookup-freq. Moved some uncommon words that can easily hide a misspelling of a more common word to level 70. (calender, adrenalin and Joesph) Removed several -er and -est forms from adjectives that were so uncommon that they were not found anywhere is the Google Book's Corpus (1980 - 2008). From Version 2014.08.11.1 to 2014.11.17 (November 17, 2014) Various new words. Fix typo in Hunspell readme. From Version 2014.08.11 to 2014.08.11.1 (August 13, 2014) Forgot to mention this important change from 7.1 to 2014.08.11: Shifted the variant levels up by one: variant_0 is now variant_1, variant_1 is now variant_2, and variant_2 is now variant_3. Other minor fixes in this README. No changes to the contents of the lists. From Revision 7.1 to Version 2014.08.11 (August 11, 2014) Added some missing possessive forms. Added some new words and proper names. Clean up the categories (words, upper, proper-names etc) so that they are more accurate. Convert documentation to UTF-8. For now, the wordlist are still in ISO-8859-1 to prevent compatibility problems. Add schema and scripts for creating a SQLite database from SCOWL. Add some utility and library functions using them. This database is used by the new web app's (http://app.aspel.net/lookup & create). Enhance speller/make-hunspell-dict. The biggest improvement is that it that it now generates several more dictionaries in addition to the official ones. These additional dictionaries are ones for British English and larger dictionaries that include up to SCOWL size 70. From Revision 7 to 7.1 (January 6, 2011) Updated to revision 5.1 of Varcon which corrected several errors. Fixed various problems with the variant processing which corrected a few more errors. Added several now common proper names and some other words now in common use. Include misc/ and speller/ directory which were in SVN but left out of the release tarball. Other minor fixes, including some fixes to the taboo word lists. From Revision 6 to 7 (December 27, 2010) Updated to revision 5.0 of Varcon which corrected many errors, especially in the British and Canadian spelling categories. Also added new spelling categories for the British and Canadian spelling variants and separated them out from the main variant_* categories. Moved Moby names lists (3897male.nam 4946fema.len 21986na.mes) to 95 level since they contain too many errors and rare names. Moved frequently class 0 from Brian Kelk's Wordlist from level 60 to 70, and also filter it with level 80 due to, too many misspellings. Many other minor fixes. From Revision 5 to 6 (August 10, 2004) Updated to version 4.0 of the 12dicts package. Included the 3esl, 2of4brif, and 5desk list from the new 12dicts package. The 3esl was included in the 40 size, the 2of4brif in the 55 size and the 5desk in the 70 size. Removed the Ispell word list as it was a source of too many errors. This eliminated the 65 size. Removed clause 4 from the Ispell copyright with permission of Geoff Kuenning. Updated to version 4.1 of VarCon. Added the "british_z" spelling category which is British using the "ize" spelling. From Revision 4a to 5 (January 3, 2002) Added variants that were not really spelling variants (such as forwards) back into the main list. Fixed a bug which caused variants of words to incorrectly appear in the non-variant lists. Moved rarely used inflections of a word into higher number lists. From 7.1 Shifted the variant levels so that level 0 is now 1, level 1 now 2, and level 2 now 3. Added other inflections of a words based on the following criteria If the word is in the base form: only include that word. If the word is in a plural form: include the base word and the plural If the word is a verb form (other than plural): include all verb forms If the word is an ad* form: include all ad* forms If the word is in a possessive form: also include the non-possessive Updated to the latest version of many of the source dictionaries. Removed the DEC Word List due to the questionable licence and because removing it will not seriously decrease the quality of SCOWL (there are a few less proper names). From Revision 4 to 4a (April 4, 2001) Reran the scripts on a never version of AGID (3a) which fixes a bug which caused some common words to be improperly marked as variants. From Revision 3 to 4 (January 28, 2001) Split the variant "spelling category" up into 3 different levels. Added words in the Ispell word list at the 65 level. Other changes due to using more recent versions of various sources included a more accurate version of AGID thanks to the work of Alan Beale From Revision 2 to 3 (August 18, 2000) Renamed special-unix-terms to special-hacker and added a large number of commonly used words within the hacker (not cracker) community. Added a couple more signature words including "newbie". Minor changes due to changes in the inflection database. From Revision 1 to 2 (August 5, 2000) Moved the male and female name lists from the mwords package and the DEC name lists form the 50 level to the 60 level and moved Alan's name list from the 60 level to the 50 level. Also added the top 1000 male, female, and last names from the 1990 Census report to the 50 level. This reduced the number of names in the 50 level from 17,000 to 7,000. Added a large number of Uppercase words to the 50 level. Properly accented the possessive form of some words. Minor other changes due to changes in my raw data files which have not been released yet. Email if you are interested in these files. COPYRIGHT, SOURCES, and CREDITS: The collective work is Copyright 2000-2015 by Kevin Atkinson as well as any of the copyrights mentioned below: Copyright 2000-2015 by Kevin Atkinson Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute and sell these word lists, the associated scripts, the output created from the scripts, and its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without fee, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation. Kevin Atkinson makes no representations about the suitability of this array for any purpose. It is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty. Alan Beale <firstname.lastname@example.org> also deserves special credit as he has, in addition to providing the 12Dicts package and being a major contributor to the ENABLE word list, given me an incredible amount of feedback and created a number of special lists (those found in the Supplement) in order to help improve the overall quality of SCOWL. The 10 level includes the 1000 most common English words (according to the Moby (TM) Words II [MWords] package), a subset of the 1000 most common words on the Internet (again, according to Moby Words II), and frequently class 16 from Brian Kelk's "UK English Wordlist with Frequency Classification". The MWords package was explicitly placed in the public domain: The Moby lexicon project is complete and has been place into the public domain. Use, sell, rework, excerpt and use in any way on any platform. Placing this material on internal or public servers is also encouraged. The compiler is not aware of any export restrictions so freely distribute world-wide. You can verify the public domain status by contacting Grady Ward 3449 Martha Ct. Arcata, CA 95521-4884 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org The "UK English Wordlist With Frequency Classification" is also in the Public Domain: Date: Sat, 08 Jul 2000 20:27:21 +0100 From: Brian Kelk <Brian.Kelk@cl.cam.ac.uk> > I was wondering what the copyright status of your "UK English > Wordlist With Frequency Classification" word list as it seems to > be lacking any copyright notice. There were many many sources in total, but any text marked "copyright" was avoided. Locally-written documentation was one source. An earlier version of the list resided in a filespace called PUBLIC on the University mainframe, because it was considered public domain. Date: Tue, 11 Jul 2000 19:31:34 +0100 > So are you saying your word list is also in the public domain? That is the intention. The 20 level includes frequency classes 7-15 from Brian's word list. The 35 level includes frequency classes 2-6 and words appearing in at least 11 of 12 dictionaries as indicated in the 12Dicts package. All words from the 12Dicts package have had likely inflections added via my inflection database. The 12Dicts package and Supplement is in the Public Domain. The WordNet database, which was used in the creation of the Inflections database, is under the following copyright: This software and database is being provided to you, the LICENSEE, by Princeton University under the following license. By obtaining, using and/or copying this software and database, you agree that you have read, understood, and will comply with these terms and conditions.: Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this software and database and its documentation for any purpose and without fee or royalty is hereby granted, provided that you agree to comply with the following copyright notice and statements, including the disclaimer, and that the same appear on ALL copies of the software, database and documentation, including modifications that you make for internal use or for distribution. WordNet 1.6 Copyright 1997 by Princeton University. All rights reserved. THIS SOFTWARE AND DATABASE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND PRINCETON UNIVERSITY MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. BY WAY OF EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMITATION, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF MERCHANT- ABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE USE OF THE LICENSED SOFTWARE, DATABASE OR DOCUMENTATION WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY PATENTS, COPYRIGHTS, TRADEMARKS OR OTHER RIGHTS. The name of Princeton University or Princeton may not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software and/or database. Title to copyright in this software, database and any associated documentation shall at all times remain with Princeton University and LICENSEE agrees to preserve same. The 40 level includes words from Alan's 3esl list found in version 4.0 of his 12dicts package. Like his other stuff the 3esl list is also in the public domain. The 50 level includes Brian's frequency class 1, words appearing in at least 5 of 12 of the dictionaries as indicated in the 12Dicts package, and uppercase words in at least 4 of the previous 12 dictionaries. A decent number of proper names is also included: The top 1000 male, female, and Last names from the 1990 Census report; a list of names sent to me by Alan Beale; and a few names that I added myself. Finally a small list of abbreviations not commonly found in other word lists is included. The name files form the Census report is a government document which I don't think can be copyrighted. The file special-jargon.50 uses common.lst and word.lst from the "Unofficial Jargon File Word Lists" which is derived from "The Jargon File". All of which is in the Public Domain. This file also contain a few extra UNIX terms which are found in the file "unix-terms" in the special/ directory. The 55 level includes words from Alan's 2of4brif list found in version 4.0 of his 12dicts package. Like his other stuff the 2of4brif is also in the public domain. The 60 level includes all words appearing in at least 2 of the 12 dictionaries as indicated by the 12Dicts package. The 70 level includes Brian's frequency class 0 and the 74,550 common dictionary words from the MWords package. The common dictionary words, like those from the 12Dicts package, have had all likely inflections added. The 70 level also included the 5desk list from version 4.0 of the 12Dics package which is in the public domain. The 80 level includes the ENABLE word list, all the lists in the ENABLE supplement package (except for ABLE), the "UK Advanced Cryptics Dictionary" (UKACD), the list of signature words from the YAWL package, and the 10,196 places list from the MWords package. The ENABLE package, mainted by M\Cooper <email@example.com>, is in the Public Domain: The ENABLE master word list, WORD.LST, is herewith formally released into the Public Domain. Anyone is free to use it or distribute it in any manner they see fit. No fee or registration is required for its use nor are "contributions" solicited (if you feel you absolutely must contribute something for your own peace of mind, the authors of the ENABLE list ask that you make a donation on their behalf to your favorite charity). This word list is our gift to the Scrabble community, as an alternate to "official" word lists. Game designers may feel free to incorporate the WORD.LST into their games. Please mention the source and credit us as originators of the list. Note that if you, as a game designer, use the WORD.LST in your product, you may still copyright and protect your product, but you may *not* legally copyright or in any way restrict redistribution of the WORD.LST portion of your product. This *may* under law restrict your rights to restrict your users' rights, but that is only fair. UKACD, by J Ross Beresford <firstname.lastname@example.org>, is under the following copyright: Copyright (c) J Ross Beresford 1993-1999. All Rights Reserved. The following restriction is placed on the use of this publication: if The UK Advanced Cryptics Dictionary is used in a software package or redistributed in any form, the copyright notice must be prominently displayed and the text of this document must be included verbatim. There are no other restrictions: I would like to see the list distributed as widely as possible. The 95 level includes the 354,984 single words, 256,772 compound words, 4,946 female names and the 3,897 male names, and 21,986 names from the MWords package, ABLE.LST from the ENABLE Supplement, and some additional words found in my part-of-speech database that were not found anywhere else. Accent information was taken from UKACD. My VARCON package was used to create the American, British, and Canadian word list. Since the original word lists used in the VARCON package came from the Ispell distribution they are under the Ispell copyright: Copyright 1993, Geoff Kuenning, Granada Hills, CA All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. All modifications to the source code must be clearly marked as such. Binary redistributions based on modified source code must be clearly marked as modified versions in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. (clause 4 removed with permission from Geoff Kuenning) 5. The name of Geoff Kuenning may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY GEOFF KUENNING AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL GEOFF KUENNING OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. The variant word lists were created from a list of variants found in the 12dicts supplement package as well as a list of variants I created myself. The Readmes for the various packages used can be found in the appropriate directory under the r/ directory. FUTURE PLANS: The process of "sort"s, "comm"s, and Perl scripts to combine the many word lists and separate out the variant information is inexact and error prone. The whole things needs to be rewritten to deal with words in terms of lemmas. When the exact lemma is not known a best guess should be made. I'm not sure what form this should be in. I originally thought this should be some sort of database, but maybe I should just slurp all that data into memory and process it in one giant perl script. With the amount of memory available these days (at least 2 GB, often 4 GB or more) this should not really be a problem. In addition, there is a very nice frequency analyze of the BNC corpus done by Adam Kilgarriff. Unlike Brian's word lists the BNC lists include part of speech information. I plan on somehow using these lists as Adam Kilgarriff has given me the OK to use it in SCOWL. These lists will greatly reduce the problem of inflected forms of a word appearing at different levels due to the part-of-speech information. There is frequency information for some other corpus such as COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English) and ANS (American National Corpus) which I might also be able to use. The former will require permission, and the latter is of questionable quality. RECREATING THE WORD LISTS: In order to recreate the word lists you need a modern version of Perl, bash, the traditional set of shell utilities, a system that supports symbolic links, and quite possibly GNU Make. The easiest way to recreate the word lists is to checkout the corresponding Git version (see the version string at the start of the file) and simply type "make" (see http://wordlist.aspell.net). You can try to download all the pieces manually, but this method is not no longer tested nor supported. The src/ directory contains the numerous scripts used in the creation of the final product. The r/ directory contains the raw data used to create the final product. If you checkout from Git this directory should be populated automatically for you. If you insist on doing it the hard way see the README file in the r/ directory for more information. The l/ directory contains symbolic links used by the actual scripts. Finally, the working/ directory is where all the intermittent files go that are not specific to one source.